عنوان مقاله [English]
Futuwwa is an Arabic word meaning ‘javanmard’ in Persian and ‘fata’ is literally a young man. From its meaning we envisage him as a person who has reached to the apogee of him life or the perfection in his life. According to the available evidences and in comparison to Mihr creed, it is considered that chivalry was prevalent in the pre- Islamic Iran. Drinking a cup of saltwater is similar to Mithra’s ceremony in which newcomers were considered a “newly converted” to Mithra by drinking a glass of wine and eating bread.
Likewise, Mithraian called each other “Yaar” and their master “Mehyar”. Also, Ayyaran called their master “Sarhang” and the prefix ‘-sar’ meaning senior and great, remind us of “Mehyar”. Note that “Ayyar” is the popular “Yar” hence their relation becomes clearer. In Sassanid era, “Yar” was a ceremonial title given to king’s friends and helpers.
The characteristics of Sassanid “Assvar” namely braveness, athletic, devotion and being bound to morality remind us of “Ayyari” and athletic traits. They were protectors of the king who were determined to do so, and their belt would present their serving the king. This belt was not only a piece of clothing, but also a sign of commitment.
After Islam, “Futuwwat” and “Ayyari” divided to two distinct groups: chivalry and militancy is found in “Ayyaran” and piousness and modesty in Fetyan. Generally speaking, we can claim that chivalry of this group changed to characters meaning piousness, generosity, braveness after Islam, which of course, each group “Ayyaran” possessed morality and Fetyan had militancy.