عنوان مقاله [English]
Forbiddingness of wine in Islamic culture has restricted the discussions of Hafez scholars on this phenomenon to jurisprudence and has made them to ignore being careful about its alternative artistic interpretations. Various types of interpretations Hafez uses about wine have been extracted, in accordance with the structure of his sonnets, in present study. There are many ironies in his words that indicate the reason for the use of the word wine in his sonnets. Due to his belief in the secrecy of wine, Hafez has used the metaphorical meanings of the "foreteller" and "inspiration of the unseen world" and "the message from unknown worlds" and "problem solving key" to show why hypocrites had forbidden and denied wine. According to wine's revelation aspect, he has sometimes metaphorically interpreted it as "Sun" and "Sunshine". "The sunshine of the morning of hope", "the candle of the righteous privacy", " the Canaanite moon" and "the full moon" are some metaphorical interpretations that are used to "reveal the secretive ones" who seem choosing loneliness for worshipping but are clandestinely engaged with forbidden affairs and cover a "hundred hidden imperfections under a curtain." Using metaphorical interpretations, the poet gets help to stand against those who introduce themselves "sage" to hide their original identity to do their sinful acts and to reveal the falsehood of those who deceive in "sage" clothes. The "Wiseman" to whom the poet needs help never lies unlike the Sufi hypocrite sages and guide those who refer to him. Hence, the poet uses the word "wine" through metaphorical interpretations such as "Pīre Tarighat", "Pīre Kharābāt", and "Sheikh of wineglass" and "sheikh of religion".