عنوان مقاله [English]
Hafez's poetry, known for encompassing all horizons even during his lifetime, has a unique style, structure, and exceptional content in his ghazals. Some readers who have read his ghazals may mistakenly perceive their verses as disjointed and separate, assuming that they are meant to challenge the vertical coherence. However, the coherence and continuity primarily concern the domain of semantic relationships between the textual units, and it is these relationships that provide cohesion and coherence to the discourse. The connection between the text and the sentence or phrase is not solely due to its size and appearance, which are factors of textual linkage, but rather due to its realization within the sentence.
Therefore, in this library-based and descriptive article, three ghazals from Hafez's Divan of Ghazals have been randomly selected, with one ghazal serving as the base and the other two ghazals serving as supporting examples. It is assumed that all of his ghazals possess vertical and horizontal coherence. Based on Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday's theory of textual coherence and cohesion, as well as Ruqaiyah Hassan's and Kolān Estāre-ye Zoltan Koovachesh's theory of major metaphor, the research hypothesis has been examined and analyzed to either support or refute it.
The research results demonstrate that out of the three general categories of textual coherence factors proposed by Michael Halliday and Ruqaiyah Hassan, the frequency of grammatical factors ranks first, lexical factors rank second, and the linking factor, which is responsible for horizontal coherence, ranks third. While lexical and grammatical factors are not only influential in achieving horizontal coherence but also contribute to vertical coherence, based on Koovachesh's theory, which primarily focuses on the domain of semantic relationships between textual units (verses), the verses of each of these ghazals are placed under the shadow of a major metaphor that does not have explicit manifestation in the text. They are blended together with subtle conceptual metaphors present in the text, thus establishing the coherence of the ghazal. In addition to textual factors, extratextual elements such as allusion and omission contribute to their coherence and cohesion within the spiritual context present in these ghazals.Therefore, these ghazals, since they possess all the necessary components that, according to the mentioned theories, are required to establish textual coherence and cohesion, demonstrate both vertical and horizontal coherence. It can be said that Halliday-Hassan's and Koovachesh's theories are applicable in determining the textual coherence and cohesion of Persian ghazal poetry, and the pattern used in this research can be utilized for the analysis and critique of rhetorical aspects in other texts, especially ghazals.