عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most important and basic topics in Persian language and literature is the definition of a literary work and the presentation of scientific and logical indicators to distinguish between strong and weak literary works. Poets and writers of the first class of Persian literature have created literary works by taking into account the effectiveness of words on the audience and the transfer of meaning in the form of artistic techniques. In this essay, the author's main goal is to use what has happened in the history of Persian literature for 1,200 years and by presenting evidence in the form of selection from the first class poets of the Persian language and literature, to identify the criteria that exist in the literary texts of these authors. The reason for the stability of words and their permanence over time has been studied and analyzed. The author of these lines, the most important factors affecting literary texts follow the following schema and have eight pillars: The first pillar: language which can be examined in five areas. Including: 1- Persian grammar, 2- Linguistic strength or mature language, 3- The position of each specific word in the context of speech, 4- The connection of words with each other, 5- The amount of speaking. The second pillar: having persuasive power which can be obtained in three ways: 1- use of allegory (including two subsections of allegory based on historical events and self-created allegories), 2- use of reasoning (including three subsections: first confiscation to the desired, second The use of natural phenomena, the third is the original arguments that emanate from the creative mind of the poet or writer. 3- The use of good reasoning. - The third pillar: the types of innovations in the text: which includes 1- innovation in theming, 2- innovation in expressive techniques and innovative industries, 3- innovation in the field of language and lexicography, 4- innovation in imagery. - The fourth pillar: hidden uses of literary subtleties and rhetorical elements - The fifth pillar: honesty of the text, which has two modes, one is the compatibility of the speaker's personality with his words, and the other is writing from the depth of the soul. - The sixth pillar: talking about eternal issues. - The seventh pillar: accompanying the content with the conditions of the time of the poet or writer. - The eighth pillar: music in poetry and perhaps prose. The music of poetry includes two parts of weight and rhyme, and in prose it includes crafts such as saj', tarsi', movazene, and the like. It is necessary to explain that this scheme was formed based on the understanding and perceptions of the author, and in fact it is a new model in recognizing the characteristics of literary masterpieces.